ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED FOLLOWING
THE 2003 COSMOLOGY CONFERENCE IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

 

Question:  Have you published anything in the past 2-3 years or do you plan to in the near future?  How can we purchase it? 

Setterfield:  The recent papers can all be referenced here on this website.  In addition, a new paper has just been accepted for web publication by the Journal of Theoretics.  The new paper deals with mass and gravity.  I am currently working on another paper with a mathematician dealing with the recombination of Planck Particle Pairs.  We are hoping to submit that for publication in early 2004.  We are also hoping to have the rewrite of the book Creation and Catastrophe finished within a month or two and submitted for publication.  Anything happening in this area will be announced on this website.

(2012 note: "Creation and Catastrophe" became our book "The Bible and Geology" which is for sale along with the DVDs "The Christmas Star" and "Anomalies." The paper with Daniel Dzimano was published in 2003, "The Redshift and the Zero Point Energy.")

 

Question:  Quasars give off matter particles besides light.  What happened to the particles from the quasar in our galaxy?

Setterfield:  The particles emitted from quasars generally are ejected at the ‘poles’, or perpendicular to the plane of the associated galaxy.  A pretty good artist’s rendition of this can be found at the Science Photo Gallery.

 

Question: Why are two different dating methods used to date the two star populations?  Are they consistent methods?  What is the evidence they are consistent?

Setterfield:  First of all, to quote from A Brief Stellar History, here is what the question concerns:

A study of the Thorium to Neodymium ratio in stars like our sun has concluded that the minimum age of the sun and similar Population I stars was 9.6 billion atomic years, with a maximum of 11.3 billion atomic years [Nature, 328, pp.127-131, 9 July, 1987]. From these figures, a good average age for the sun would be about 10.5 billion atomic years. This view finds some support from the fact that the age of the oldest events recorded in Moon rocks ranged from 5.4 billion, through 7 billion, and up to 8.2 billion atomic years [Science, 167, pp.479-480, 557, 30 January, 1970]. In similar fashion, a recent study of Population II stars using the Uranium to Thorium ratio has indicated that the oldest stars in our galaxy have an age of 12.5 ± 3 billion atomic years [Cayrel et al., Nature, 409, p. 691, 8 February, 2001]. Earlier work based on Thorium and Europium abundances suggested 15.2 ± 3.7 billion atomic years [Cowan et al., Astrophysical Journal, 480, p. 246, 1997]. Even though the limits of error are larger, the data from this 1997 study suggest that the actual value should be at the higher end of the range indicated by the more precise 2001 study. When further studies are completed, it may be expected that results may converge to a figure somewhere around 14.5 billion atomic years, which would accord with data from stellar theory [Riess et al., arXiv:astro-ph/9805201v1, 15 May, 1998]. The difference in atomic age between the two main Populations of stars is thus about 4 billion atomic years. 

In summary, other methods have been used to date the two populations of stars, and they give concordant results.  However, the methods quoted in the lecture (thorium/neodymium ratio for population 1 and uranium/thorium ratio for population 2) give results with the lowest error bars.

 

Question: What are the estimated sizes of parent bodies of the asteroids – the exploded planet and its moon?

Setterfield:  It is generally stated that if all the asteroidal material were collected together, they would make a planet probably smaller than our moon.  However, this does not take into account the material which has been lost into the sun or impacted on other planetary or moon bodies.  The planet would not have been very large, though, and its moon, of course, smaller.  The question behind this question may be “Why did these two bodies explode when other planets and their moons did not?”  The answer to this lies in the high aluminum (aluminium) 26 content that these bodies had initially.  We see the high resulting magnesium 26 which is the result of the radio decay of the parent element.  This decay would have heated the planet and its moon rapidly under the conditions which also produced the high light speed of the early cosmos, and this rapid heating would have driven the water not only out of the rocks, but would have caused the parent bodies to explode.  The key is in the make-up of the early bodies.  This can be referenced to the Cambridge Atlas of Astronomy, p. 122.  For further details, please see A Brief Stellar History.

 

Question: Please explain more about the Zero Point Energy.  If it is electromagnetic, what frequencies?  What polarization?  What field strengths?  Can it be measured other than with parallel plates?  Do secular scientists discuss it?

Setterfield:  I think there is quite a bit about the ZPE here on my website.  You might check the Discussions section regarding the ZPE questions and also my paper Exploring the Vacuum.  Yes, the ZPE is electromagnetic in character; its frequencies range from very low to very high.  The cutoff frequency at the high end is determined by the Planck length.  I am unaware of a limit at the low end.  I am not aware of any studies done on polarization of the ZPE (in the same way the cosmic background radiation is polarized) and did a quick look on the net for you on this one.  The closest I found was the following from the California Institute of Physics and Astrophysics:

Radio waves, light, X-rays, and gamma rays are all forms of electromagnetic radiation. Classically, electromagnetic radiation can be pictured as waves flowing through space at the speed of light. The waves are not waves of anything substantive, but are in fact ripples in a state of a field. These waves do carry energy, and each wave has a specific direction, frequency and polarization state. This is called a "propagating mode of the electromagnetic field."

Each mode is subject to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. To understand the meaning of this, the theory of electromagnetic radiation is quantized by treating each mode as an equivalent harmonic oscillator. From this analogy, every mode of the field must have hf/2 as its average minimum energy. That is a tiny amount of energy, but the number of modes is enormous, and indeed increases as the square of the frequency. The product of the tiny energy per mode times the huge spatial density of modes yields a very high theoretical energy density per cubic centimeter.

From this line of reasoning, quantum physics predicts that all of space must be filled with electromagnetic zero-point fluctuations (also called the zero-point field) creating a universal sea of zero-point energy. The density of this energy depends critically on where in frequency the zero-point fluctuations cease. Since space itself is thought to break up into a kind of quantum foam at a tiny distance scale called the Planck scale (10-33 cm), it is argued that the zero point fluctuations must cease at a corresponding Planck frequency (1043 Hz). If that is the case, the zero-point energy density would be 110 orders of magnitude greater than the radiant energy at the center of the Sun.

This article implies that every electromagnetic wave making up the ZPE has a random polarization, so there should be no net polarization of the ZPE in general.

The ZPE can be detected by a variety of mechanisms, but to the best of my knowledge, the only way to actually measure it is via parallel plates (the Casimir effect).   Further discussion of this may be found in my paper Exploring the Vacuum, in particular the section starting on page 8 with the following:

Evidence For The Existence Of The ZPE

Experimental evidence soon built up hinting at the existence of the ZPE, although its fluctuations do not become significant enough to be observed until the atomic level is attained. For example, the ZPE can explain why cooling alone will never freeze liquid helium25, 48. Unless pressure is applied, these ZPE fluctuations prevent helium’s atoms from getting close enough to permit solidification15. In electronic circuits, such as microwave receivers, another problem surfaces because ZPE fluctuations cause a random “noise” that places limits on the level to which signals can be amplified. This “noise” can never be removed no matter how perfect the technology.

There is other physical evidence for the existence of the ZPE proving that it is not just a theoretical construct. One such piece of evidence is something called the surface Casimir effect, predicted Hendrik Casimir, the Dutch scientist, in 1948 and confirmed nine years later by M. J. Sparnaay of the Philips Laboratory in Eindhoven, Holland1. The Casimir effect can be demonstrated by bringing two large metal plates very close together in a vacuum. When they are close, but not touching, there is a small but measurable force that pushes them together. An elegant analysis by Milonni, Cook and Goggin explained this effect simply using SED physics49. Given that the ZPE consists of electromagnetic waves, then as the metal plates are brought closer, they end up excluding all wavelengths of the ZPF between the plates except those for which a whole number of half-waves is equal to the plates’ distance apart. In other words, all the long wavelengths of the ZPF are now acting on the plates from the outside with no long waves acting from within to balance the pressure. The combined radiation pressure of these external waves then forces the plates together16, 32. The same effect can be seen on the ocean. Sailors have noted that if the distance between two boats is less than the distance between two wave crests (or one wavelength), the boats are forced towards each other. 

The Casimir effect is directly proportional to the area of the plates.  However, unlike other possible forces with which it may be confused, the Casimir force is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the plates’ distance apart50.  For plates with an area of one square centimetre separated by 0.5 thousandths of a millimetre, this force is equivalent to a weight of 0.2 milligrams.  In January of 1997, Steven Lamoreaux51 reported experimental verification of these details within 5%. Then in November 1998, Umar Mohideen and Anushree Roy reported that they had verified the theory to within an accuracy of 1% in an experiment that utilized the capabilities of an atomic force microscope52.

Regarding the last part of your question, I think if you look up “zero point energy” on any of the search engines, you will find that it is the subject of much discussion among a great many scientists.  Some of the articles are linked in my Discussion section on ZPE.

 

Question: Aren’t there other instances in Scripture where the ‘earth’ is used as an idiom for people?  (in reference to the earth being divided in Peleg’s day)  -- such as “…the earth was full of wickedness.”

Setterfield:  There are a number of problems with trying to associate the ‘earth’ with ‘people’ in Genesis 10:25 (“Two sons were born to Eber:  One was named Peleg, because in his time the earth was divided;…”).  First, there have been many migrations of people throughout time, and this is not considered anything extraordinary.  Second, there is a clue in his brother’s name: Joktan.  Joktan means to 'cut off', 'make small', 'kill', 'destroy', to 'diminish' or to 'tear off'.  Not your normal name for a child!  The name Peleg itself means 'earthquake', 'division', 'channel of water'. It is also the root word for Pelagos, which was the old Grecian term for the Mediterranean, and for the 'pelagic' or upper ocean region in geology.

But the question was about the word used for ‘earth’ in Genesis 10:25.  That word is “eres” or “erets”.  It comes from an unused root probably meaning ‘to be firm.’  The word is used over 2500 times in the Old Testament.  According to my Concordance for the NIV, it is translated as “land” 1150 times, “earth” 524 times, “Egypt” 184 times (when used in conjunction with “misrayim”),  “ground” 160 times, “country” 92 times, “countries” 39 times, “lands” 34 times, “Canaan” 29 times (when used in conjunction with “k’na’an”), “world” 20 times, “region” 18 times, “territory” 17 times, etc.   It is even translated as “clay” once and “field” once.

In other words, to presume this word means ‘people’ or ‘population’ is to deny its clear meaning in the Hebrew and the way it is used in Scripture.  The word is used in the phrase  “the earth was corrupt” in Genesis 6:11.  But it is important to look at this verse in context:

“Now the earth was corrupt in God’s sight and was full of violence.  God saw how corrupt the earth had become, for all the people on earth had corrupted their ways.”

We know that dirt itself, or a land mass, cannot become ‘corrupt’ morally.  Nor can it be ‘full of violence’ in a moral sense in and of itself.  That is why verse 12, the following sentence is so important  “…for all the people on earth had corrupted their ways.”  Thus earth is defined here as land mass, and the problem is identified as being with the people, “basar,” which translates “flesh, meat, body, mankind, bodies, people, life, flesh and blood,” etc.  The King James translates this word as “flesh” – “all flesh had become corrupt”.  It is probably because animals also have ‘flesh’ that the modern translations prefer ‘people’ as the preferred word to use.  The word ‘basar’ itself comes from a root of the same spelling and means ‘flesh’ or ‘person.’  In other words, the Bible is quite clear about the distinction between a land mass and a person or population (“am” in the Hebrew).  In Genesis 10:25, the meaning from the men’s names as well as from the word used is very clear – there was a division of land masses in the days of Peleg.

 

Question: Why wasn’t your mechanism to explain the five anomalies included in ICC03?  Why aren’t you part of ICR’s RATE group?

Setterfield:  Regarding the ICC03, the abstracts were called for over a year ago and at that time I was not ready to put a presentation together on this subject.  Regarding the RATE group, although I appreciate their work, they and I know that I am not supportive of the model they are supporting which says that Noah’s Flood, in one year, built up most of the geologic column.  Since they are working from this basis and I disagree strongly with it, it would have been difficult for us to work together.  I would like to repeat, however, that I appreciate the work they are doing.

 

Question: According to cosmological models, was Noah’s Flood inevitable from the way God created the earth?  The Bible seems to imply that God sent the Flood due to the wickedness of man.  If the Flood was inevitable from creation, how can we say that what God created was very good?

Setterfield:  This question actually goes to the heart of “What did God know?”  I think the answer can be found in two places:  Isaiah 45:18 in combination with 46:10, and in Revelation 13:8.

Isaiah – For this is what the Lord says – he who created the heavens, he is God;
He who fashioned and made the earth,
He founded it; He did not create it to be empty, but formed it to be inhabited –
…”I make known the end from the beginning,
from ancient times, what is still to come.
I say:  My purpose will stand,
And I will do all that I please.”

And then from Revelation 13:8 – “…the Lamb that was slain from the creation of the world.”

In other words, God knew man would sin.  He had already prepared salvation for men in Christ.  Yes, the Flood was a response to the wickedness of men; nevertheless it had been planned at the inception of creation.  And whether or not we think the newly created world was very good, God called it so.  All was prepared and ready to go – including the consequences of sin, which He knew was coming.

Question: Using your proposed theory concerning changing c, h, and ZPE, is it possible to mathematically convert the ages obtained from standard radiometric dating to “true” orbital ages?  For instance, if a fossil is dated as one million years old, does it convert to six thousand years old?  What is the conversion factor?

Setterfield:  Yes, it is possible to convert the ages so that they harmonize.  This is done using the redshift curve, which the same curve as light speed against time and the same curve as radiometric dates against orbital dates.  Information on this can be seen on this website at the following URL’s

http://www.setterfield.org/cdkcurve.html -- The basic redshift curve
http://www.setterfield.org/biblicaldisc.htm#chronology – a discussion of redshift and time.
http://www.setterfield.org/scriptchron.htm -- the last chart on this page directly addresses itself to your question, although the entire article might be of interest.

Question: Do you agree with Dr. Humphreys’ conclusion that the quantized redshift (seen in every direction from earth) is very strong evidence that the earth is essentially at the center of the universe?

Setterfield:  Dr. Humphreys and I have a disagreement here.  I do not feel the quantized redshift indicates our position in the universe.  Since no matter where one would stand in the universe, that point would be ‘here and now,’ then from any point, looking out would be looking back in time.  This means that from every point in the universe, the quantized redshift shells would appear to be expanding out from that particular point, making every point appear to be the center of the universe if someone was standing there observing.

Question: Is the assertion by most scientists that the speed of light always was, is now, and ever shall be constant, science or faith?

Setterfield:  Neither.  It is deliberate ignorance of the facts.  For those unaware of the facts, it is faith in those who instructed them.  The data itself does not allow that conclusion.

Question: Is ‘c’ immune from the Second Law of Thermodynamics?

Setterfield:  It is important to remember that the laws of thermodynamics deal with heat transfer in a closed system.  So the Second Law of Thermodynamics really has nothing to do with light speed.  However, what the questioner might have been asking is whether or not the generalized tendency towards increased entropy (increased disorganization) applies to light speed.  No, it does not.  Entropy involves that which is organized in structure, not the speed of electromagnetic radiation.  The original term “decay” in reference to light speed slowing is very misleading.  The speed of light itself has not decayed at all, really.  Rather, the obstacles (virtual particles) which absorb and then re-emit any given photon of light has increased with the increase in the Zero Point Energy in space, thus causing light to take longer to reach its final point of absorption – its destination.  However, in between obstacles, the speed of light remains the same as the moment it was emitted from the atom.  There is, in short, no such thing as ‘tired light.’  There is simply light being held up in its travel by denser mediums.  A lay explanation can be found here at Setterfield Simplified.

Question:  Dr. Lucas showed that radiohalos negate the change in the speed of light you propose.  What is your response?

Question: Do you have an explanation of the non-fuzziness and agreement with today’s physical constants of the radio halos?

Setterfield:  The response to these two questions was given in Ex Nihilo, volume 4 Number 3, October 1981.  On pages 56-81, I have an article entitled “The Velocity of Light and the Age of the Universe, Part Two”.  The relevant paragraphs, which are quoted below, may be found on page 69.  The ellipses mark where previous equations in the article were deleted for the sake of this quote:

Many involved in radiometric dating of rocks would maintain that pleochroic haloes provide evidence that the decay constants have not changed.  Crystals of mica and other minerals from igneous or metamorphic rock often contain minute quantities of other minerals with uranium or thorium in them.  The α-particles emitted by the disintegrating elements interact with the host material until they finally stop.  This produces discolouration of the host material.  The distance that the α-particles travel is dependent firstly upon their kinetic energy.  As the binding energy for a given radioactive nuclide is constant despite changing c, so also is the energy of the emitted α-particle.  This arises since the α-particle mass is proportional to 1/c2 … but its velocity of ejection is proportional to c… Thus as kinetic energy is given by ½ mv2, it follows that this is a constant.  As the α-particle moves through its host material, it will have to interact with the same number of energy potential wells…which will have the same effect upon the α-particle energy as now.  In other words, if we might put it colloquially, the α-particle’s energy will run out at the same position in the host material independent of the value of c. 

It might be argued, however, that the α-particle’s velocity of ejection is proportional to c, so it should carry further.  This is not the case, though, as a moment’s thought will reveal.  Another reason that the particle slows up is that the charge it carries interacts with the charges on the surrounding atoms in the host material.  In the past with a higher value of c, the α-particle mass was lower proportional to 1/c2…  The effective charge per α-particle mass is increased by a factor of c2.  In other words, the same charge will…attract or repel the lower mass much more readily.  Consequently the slowing effects due to the interaction of charges is increased in proportion to c2 exactly counteracting the effects of mass decrease proportional to 1/c2 which resulted in the higher velocity.  In other words, the radii of the pleochroic haloes formed by ejected α-particles will remain generally constant for all c.

Question:  If c is slower now than at Creation, due to collisions with space particles, over many years of traveling through space, how do you explain the slow speed detected in short paths of travel through vacuum equipment in Earthbound labs?

Setterfield:   The two types of slowing are different, but related.  In both cases, the photons must travel through denser mediums.  The lab experiments have not been in total vacuums, but have been involved with condensates, for example sodium atoms, at a very low temperature – close to absolute zero.   This article from Scientific American entitled Frozen Light should help it be more understandable.

In space, the slowing is provided by the absorption and re-emission of light photons by virtual particles appearing and disappearing at “instantaneous” speeds, however with the increasing number of them through time (there are billions of them in a cubic centimeter of space), the apparent speed of light has slowed – meaning the time it takes light to get from its point of origin to its final destination is longer. 

Thus, although the methods used are different, the effect of slowing light is basically the same as light is being forced to travel through more and more ‘difficult’ mediums.

Question:  Does new light (just generated near the observer) travel through space at the same speed as old light that has been on its way to the observer for six thousand years?  How do the photons synchronize their speed across the Universe?

Setterfield:  At any instant the speed of light throughout the universe is the same unless the light is being obstructed or delayed due to some local cause.  Thus the answer to the first part of the question is yes, the light emitted at any time will reach the observer at the same speed, as the light in transit is affected by the properties of space itself.  The ‘synchronization’ effect is due to the fact that the Zero Point Energy, which is the controller of light speed in the final analysis, is the same throughout the universe at any given moment.  If this is still muddy in the mind of the questioner, it might be helpful to read Exploring the Vacuum and the Discussion page on the ZPE.  As soon as the Journal of Theoretics has it posted, we will link my new article concerning mass and gravity and the origin of the ZPE here as well. 

 

Question:  Has there been a decrease in the speed of light from 1980 to 2003?  Why – why not?

Setterfield:  Although the speed of light changes are quite minor today and, in fact, a fluctuation is evident, there is positive evidence that the speed of light is still slowing, as explained in my analysis of the Pioneer 10 and 11 anomalies.

Question:  ZPE seems to contradict entropy and thermodynamics in that it draws boundless energy from “nothing” in a sense.  Do you consider it a universal law God has instituted to hold creation together?

Setterfield:  The ZPE is not the result of ‘nothing.’  It is the result of the potential energy which came from the initial stretching of the universe converting to the kinetic energy of the spinning and separated Planck Particle Pairs and then from their recombination, which released the energy we refer to as the zero point energy.  There is no violation of the standard laws of physics involved.

Question:  Would the electron orbital predictions that arise out of the model of the atom described by Collins be affected by the transfer of zero point energy to the electron that forms part of the Setterfield model? (note:  the model of the atom being spoken of is on the Common Sense Science website.)

Setterfield:  The model of the atom that is often used for initial calculations is the Bohr model – the standard model found in most textbooks;  by contrast the Common Sense Science (CSS) model replaces an electron in an orbit with a ring electron made up of three fibres of circulating charge.  The Bohr atom model is certainly affected by the ZPE.  Electrons move faster when the ZPE is lower, and electron masses increase with a higher ZPE.  In the variable lightspeed (Vc) model,  the electron orbits take on higher energy values when the ZPE is higher. At the same time, with increasing ZPE, the speed of light will drop, and electron masses will increase. Since it is true that the CSS model has charge circulating in the electron ring at the speed of light, it would be expected that any change in the speed of light would have an effect.  Thus one would also expect a concordant change in their equations.   In the classical concept of the electron, its mass can be attributed entirely to electro-magnetic self-interaction.  This presumably has its equivalent in the CSS model. On that basis, it is possible that there may be equivalent changes in the CSS model, but to be sure of that it would be better to ask CSS to examine their equations and give a response since they know their model better than I do.

Question You mentioned a Planck Particle interaction with a photon as a slow down mechanism for light.  Looking at the cross section of a Planck Particle, do you expect it to affect more of one frequency than another?

Setterfield:  Firstly, it is not Planck Particles which interact with the photons of light.  It is the virtual particles, which are much larger.  There is, in fact, what might be called a ‘zoo’ of such particles with a variety of energies. Therefore all wavelengths and frequencies would be uniformly affected.

 

Question:  Steve Austin showed the radiometric dates from recent lava flows in the Grand Canyon were the same as the lava in the Vishnu Shists underneath the Grand Canyon.  Can your model account for this data?

Setterfield:  I am not aware of this claim, and would like to know more about it.  However, in the Proceedings for the International Creation Conference 2003, starting at page 269, we find a relevant report.  Basically, the team headed by Dr. Steve Austin has attempted to establish that different radioactive decay series have given different dates for the same strata.  The stratum involved is Precambrian and immediately above the Vishnu Shist.  It is called the Bass Rapids diabase sill.  The article claims, from this data, that under accelerated radioactive decay conditions, the rates of acceleration are different for different radioactive mother/daughter pairs.  Basically, they show that rubidium/strontium determinations yield an age around 1100 million atomic years for the sill, while potassium/argon yields only around 900 million atomic years.  Other isotopes have their own concordant dates within the range between the two.  They suggest three alternatives:  1) argon inheritance, 2) argon mixing, or 3) change in the radio isotopic decay rates “by different factors.”  To these may be added a fourth option that is indicated by a changing speed of light.  At the time that the sill was being intruded, the speed of light was approximately five million times its current speed.  Therefore, the range of 200 million atomic years reflected above in the dates quoted is accounted for.  It would only have taken forty orbital, or actual, years during which the sill was cooling for this range of dates to have been established.