Introduction: A layman’s Extended Summary

  1. Discerning the Zero Point Energy (ZPE)
  2. Has the ZPE Strength Changed?
  3. Virtual Particles
  4. Zero Point Energy and the Speed of Light
  5. Zero Point Energy and Planck’s Constant
  6. Energy and Sub-Atomic Masses
  7. Measuring Time
  8. The ZPE and the Redshift
  9. Plasma Physics and the ZPE
  10. Biology and the Zero Point Energy
  11. Gigantism in Plants
  12. The Zero Point Energy and Relativity.
  13. References

Chapter 1: Exploring the Vacuum

  1. Introduction to the Zero Point Energy (ZPE)
  2. Two Approaches to ZPE Effects
  3. A Cosmological Constant and the ZPE
  4. The Cosmos and Origin of the ZPE
  5. References

 Chapter 2: An Introduction to Planck’s Constant, h, and the Speed of Light, c.

  1. Zero Point Energy and Planck’s Constant, h.
  2. The ZPE and the Speed of Light, c.
  3. Overview of Discussion on c Variation
  4. Closing the Data Discussion and Universal Oscillation
  5. References

 Chapter 3: The Speed of Light Measurements

Section 1: Early Work on Light Speed 

  1. An Infinite Speed of Light?
  2. Ole Christensen Roemer
  3. Analysis of Roemer’s Work
  4. A Modern Look at Roemer’s Work
  5. Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre
  6. S. P. Glazenapp
  7. Sampson, Harvard, and Various Values
  8. Conclusions From Early Experiments

Section 2: Bradley and the Aberration Experiments

  1. Parallax and Aberration
  2. James Bradley’s Circumstances
  3. Observing with Bradley
  4. Bradley’s Discovery
  5. Bradley’s Initial Results
  6. Results on Seven More Stars
  7. Re-processing Bradley’s results
  8. Definitive Results
  9. Other Aberration Values

Section 3: Fizeau and the Toothed Wheel Experiments

  1. Armand Hippolyte-Louis Fizeau
  2. Fizeau’s Results
  3. Enter Marie Alfred Cornu
  4. Cornu’s Results
  5. The Young-Forbes Result
  6. Perrotin’s Procedures and Results
  7. Toothed Wheel Method Summary

Section 4: Foucault and the Rotating Mirror Experiments

  1. English, French and Americans in Rotation
  2. Foucault’s Rotating Mirror
  3. Foucault’s Problems
  4. Foucault’s Micrometer and c Value
  5. Enter the Americans
  6. Newcomb’s Experiments
  7. Newcomb’s Problems
  8. Newcomb’s Results
  9. The Beginnings With Michelson
  10. Michelson’s New Apparatus
  11. Michelson’s Second Series Results
  12. Michelson’s Third Series
  13. Michelson’s Third Series Results
  14. Michelson Tries Again
  15. Details of the New Try
  16. Results from the New Try
  17. Michelson’s Series Five
  18. Results From Series Five
  19. Dorsey’s Comments
  20. Michelson’s Last Experiment
  21. Over to Pease and Pearson
  22. Rotating Mirror Conclusions

 Section 5: Recent c Measurements

  1. Kerr-Cell Results 1928-1940
  2. The Six Methods Used 1945-1960
  3. The Decreasing Decay Rate for c
  4. The Oscillation Flat-Point
  5. Laser c Measurements and a Definition
  6. Problems With Laser Measurements
  7. Addendum on Two Different Methods
  8. References

 Chapter 4: The ZPE and Atomic Behavior

  1. Mass and the Zero Point Energy
  2. The Newtonian Gravitational Constant, G
  3. The Origin of Gravitation From SED Physics
  4. Atomic and Orbital Clocks
  5. Comparing Trends in Clock Data
  6. The Gyromagnetic Ratio of the Proton
  7. References

Chapter 5: The ZPE and the Redshift

  1. Introducing the Redshift
  2. The Accuracy of the Redshift Equation
  3. The Quantized Redshift
  4. Some Conclusions
  5. Atoms and Electron Orbits
  6. The ZPE and the Redshift
  7. Interim Summary
  8. The Redshift of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR)
  9. The Redshift, CMBR, Atomic Clock Rates and Lightspeed
  10. Where the Redshift Function Ends
  11. Considering the Form of Recombination Equations
  12. References

Chapter 6: The ZPE, Plasma Behavior, and Some Astronomical Implications

  1. Introducing Plasma Physics
  2. The Zero Point Energy and Plasma Physics
  3. Earth and Planetary Magnetic Fields
  4. Examining Plasma Equations
  5. Forming a Plasma Universe
  6.  Galaxy Rotation and Missing Mass
  7. The Formation of Stars
  8. The Sun and its Output
  9. Planet Formation in General
  10. Our Solar System
  11.  A ZPE Model for Planetary Geology
  12. Diamond, Oil and Salt Deposits on Earth
  13. Coming to Conclusions
  14. References

Chapter 7: The ZPE and Relativity

  1. Overview of the Topic
  2. Some Predictions of Relativity
  3. General Relativity, Gravity and the ZPE
  4. Light in Gravitational Fields
  5. Atomic Clocks Slow in Gravitational Fields
  6. The Fine Structure Constant
  7. The Perihelion Advance of Mercury
  8. Frame Dragging
  9. Gravitational Waves
  10. Cyclic Variations in Atomic Clocks
  11. The Speed of Gravity
  12. Gravitational Lensing
  13. Gravitational Lensing and our Galaxy’s Center
  14. Conclusion
  15. References

Chapter 8: The Zero Point Energy and Radioactive Decay Processes

  1. Introduction
  2. The Nuclear “Potential Well”
  3. Alpha Decay Processes
  4. Beta Decay Processes
  5. Electron or “K Capture” Processes
  6. Coupling Constants
  7. Pleochroic Haloes
  8. Types of Fission and the Oklo Natural Reactor
  9. Radioactive Heating
  10. Heat and Radiation Intensities
  11. Radiometric Dates and Carbon 14 Data
  12. Tracing Back the ZPE Oscillation
  13. C-14 Content in Ancient Coal and Diamonds
  14. The ZPE and Accelerated Decay Rates
  15. References

Chapter 9: The ZPE, Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages and Solar System History

  1. Cosmic Ray Exposure (CRE) and Meteorite Ages
  2. Geological Significance of CRE Ages
  3. The Parent Body For Meteorites
  4. An Explosion or Collisions?
  5. Radioactive Elements in Planetary Cores
  6. The Role of Radioactive Heating
  7. The Late Heavy Bombardment Radioactively Dated
  8. Crater Forming Processes
  9. Electrical Machining of Planetary Surfaces?
  10. Summary of Effects for Planets
  11. Focussing on the Inner Planets
  12. A Brief History of the Earth
  13. Postponing Some Decisions
  14. References

Chapter 10: The ZPE, Fossil Gigantism, and Other Paleontological Puzzles

  1. Introducing the Fossils
  2. Problems With Fossil Fauna
  3. The Zero Point Energy and Biological Effects from Bio-Electro-Magnetism
  4. Fossil Flora, the ZPE and the Behavior of Light Amplitudes
  5. Overview of Photosynthesis
  6. The Carbon Fixation Process
  7. Activating the Rubisco Enzyme
  8. Other Implications for the Fossil Record
  9. The Oklo Reactor and Banded Iron Formations
  10. Summary
  11. References

 Chapter 11: Extended Technical Summary

  1. Exploring the Vacuum
  2. Behavior of the Zero Point Energy
  3. The ZPE, Planck’s Constant and the Speed of Light
  4. The ZPE, Atomic Masses and Atomic Time
  5. The ZPE and the Redshift
  6. Implications in Other Disciplines
  7. The ZPE and Relativity
  8. Conclusion
  9. References

 Appendix A: The ZPE and the Redshift Equation Derivation

Appendix B: Radiant Energy Emission

B1. The Energy Density of Radiation
B2. Stellar Luminosities
B3. Cepheid Variables
B4. Supernova 1987A
B5. Chemical Reactions
B6. References

Appendix C: Doppler Shifts and the ZPE

C1. What is Being Measured
C2. Data From a Supernova
C3. Rotation Rates of Distant Galaxies
C4. Binary Stars’ Orbital Revolution Rates
C5. References

Appendix D: Pulsars and the ZPE

Appendix E: The Origins of Craters Throughout the Solar System

E1. Two Processes Forming Craters
E2. Crater Ray Systems
E3. Types of Craters
E4. Additional Features
E5. Large Basins and Circular Structures
E6. Features of Craters and their Origins
E7. References

Appendix F: Practical Matters