Behavior of the Zero Point Energy and Atomic Constants
Barry Setterfield
18th February 2007
Abstract
The origin and behavior of the electromagnetic fields making up the vacuum Zero Point Energy (ZPE) are examined. It is demonstrated that the ZPE should increase with time even in a static universe. The small oscillations that a static cosmos undergoes will add a variable component to the overall behavior of the ZPE. An analysis of the dependence of five physical quantities upon the strength of the ZPE is performed. These quantities include Planck’s constant, sub-atomic particle masses, run rates of atomic clocks and the speed of light. In addition, the suspected quantization of the redshift and its possible relationship to the ZPE is explored. The size of Tifft’s basic redshift quantization is obtained by considering atomic behavior with an increasing ZPE. The mathematical form of the cosmological time variation of the ZPE emerges from this discussion, and as a consequence the form of the variation in these five physical quantities is elucidated.
Keywords: zero point energy; ZPE; Planck’s constant; atomic particle masses; missing mass; atomic clocks; speed of light; redshifts; time variable constants; cosmology.
1. Introducing the Zero Point Energy
2. The Origin of the ZPE
3. ZPE and Atomic Constants’ Behaviormaterial added 3/9/07
4. ZPE and Atomic Stability
5. The ZPE and the Redshift
6. The ZPE and Redshift Quantum Jumpsredone 3/26/07
7. The Mathematical Behaviour of the ZPE
Appendix 1: The Origin of the Zero Point Energy and the Redshift/Distance
Equation
Appendix 2: Radiant Energy Emission
Appendix 3: Missing Mass and the ZPE
Appendix 4: Radiometric Decay Processes
Appendix 5: The Size of the Quantum Change
Appendix 6: Doppler Shifts and the ZPE
Appendix 7: Varying c, Maxwells Equations & Special Relativity
Appendix 8: Problems With Pulsars
Tables I and II: Recommended Values for Planck's Constant and Birge's Recommended Values for c
Figures
Figure 1: Recommended values of Planck’s
constant, hx10-34 J-s
Figure 2: Birge’s recommended values of
light velocity, c x 105 km/s
Figure 3: Recommended values of
h/e x 10-15 J-s/C
Figure 4: Recommended values of
electron rest-mass, m x 10-31 kg
Figure 5: Recommended values of the
Rydberg constant R∞ cm-1
Figure 6: Secular variation of corrections to
the mean longitude of the planet Mercury
in arc-seconds (after Kolesnik)
Figure 7: Graph of (57) the inverse of ZPE behavior and h.
Behavior of (1+z) on left axis and c x 107 on right.
Figure 8: Behavior of Atomic Time Using Carbon 14 .
References (each page in the body and appendices has its own references linked at the bottom. This is a complete list of references for the entire paper) |